Crime, Shame, and Reintegration. “Youth Justice: Institutionalised Intolerance: Youth Justice and the 1998 Criminal Justice Act.” Critical Social Policy 19(2): 147–175.Find this resource: 丸山雅夫「少年法における保護処分と責任要件」中谷陽二ほか（編）『精神科医療と法』（弘文堂，2008年）85頁 (Maruyama, M. (2008) ‘Family Court Disposition and Requirement of Responsibility in Juvenile Law.’ In Y. Nakatani (Ed) Psychiatry and Law [in Japanese only] Tokyo: Kobundo Press: pp. (11) For instance, figures for annual recorded crime will be lower than those processed by the courts system, which deal with a greater number of cases within the course of that same year. “Comparing Japanese and English Juvenile Justice: Reflections on Change in the Twenty-First Century.” Crime Prevention and Community Safety 11(2): 75–89.Find this resource: Maeda, M. (2003). critically assesses the overall organization, administration, and impact of the Family Court (equivalent to youth or juvenile courts) and summarizes recent developments in youth crime policy. “What Makes Gêmu Different? In recent years, this concern has grown with the dramatic rise in juvenile violence that began in the mid-1980s and peaked in the early 1990s. Certainly, violent gaming in Japan tends to take place in a more social/family setting and is more role-play (JRPG) oriented (Anderson et al, 2010) than Western’ “hack and slash” gaming (Navarro-Remesal and Loriguillo-López, 2015, pp. As Figure 9 shows, there were over 12,000 police referrals to social welfare agencies in 2013, but only around 400 (3 percent ) of these were referred on to the Family Court. Only the last of these tends to be covered in most outlines of Japanese juvenile justice, statistical collections, and discussions. So far, due to its sheer volume and general lack of coverage, the pre-delinquency issue has necessarily dominated the discussion. We then analyze the Family Court (equivalent to youth or juvenile courts in other countries), including its rationale and sentencing practices. By focusing on its potential consequences, we also discuss what the future of youth justice in Japan would look like. In order to do this, it is first necessary to look at the level and trends of penal code offences. Clarendon Studies in Criminology. Much has therefore been made of the 2010 Inshinomaki case because it was the first juvenile homicide trial to involve the saiban-in (裁判員) or ‘lay judge’ system (introduced into the adult courts in May 2009) to pass a death sentence on a juvenile. Schools (mainly post-elementary) can also inform police of pupil incidents. I investigate not only how the delinquent students’ conduct changed over three years of observation but also how their relationships with teachers and non-delinquent peers affected their school lives. The ministry of justice (MOJ) views the youth justice system as a success story after the number of children cautioned or convicted in England and Wales dropped from 106,969 in 2010 to … As Figure 12 shows, in 2014 just over half (54,331; 52 percent ) of cases referred to the Family Court were dismissed without a hearing and no further criminal justice action was taken. Japanese youth crime. However, most cases (105,000 in 2013) therefore have to be referred initially to the (adult justice system) Public Prosecutors Office, which in turn refers almost all of them back to the Family Court (Article 42 of Juvenile Act 1948). While the overall number of cleared offences committed in Japan has been reduced from 330,126 in 2000, to 301,331 in 2012, the trends in the juvenile and adult contributions to this are very different. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.Find this resource: Giddens, A. (2002). JTSs account for only 6 percent of Family Court hearing disposals, which means that 3,119 juvenile offenders were subject to some type of juvenile incarceration through the family court, in addition to the 31 sentenced to adult prison as identified earlier. If juveniles are over 14 and the maximum sanction for the offence is a fine, the police can refer them directly to the Family Court (Article 41 of Juvenile Act 1948), nearly 8,000 cases in 2013 (Figure 9). 1,582 in 2009 Judicial Statistics, which are the last published figures http://www.courts.go.jp/app/files/toukei/945/004945.pdf [available in Japanese only]. The study critically assesses the overall organization, administration, and impact of the Family Court (equivalent to youth or juvenile courts) and summarizes recent developments in youth crime policy. Japan uses existing forms of social control, making relatively small changes to the justice system, which is regarded as having been generally tried and tested over a long period. 33: 67–91.Find this resource: Hanzai Kakusho (2009). Most examinations of youth justice focus on a continuum between welfare-based processes at one end, and justice solutions at the other. It is important to bear in mind, however, that in all cases in the district courts, the saiban-in powers are limited and in all cases are led by a professional judge. The revisions in 2000 lowered the age limit for transfer from the Family Court to the adult court from 16 to 14 years of age for serious cases (Kai, 2010, p. 4), although as the analysis we have presented shows, this has, so far, had no effect on the proportion of juveniles transferred. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Find this resource: Muncie, J. Often referred to as “Family Court research law clerk” in official Japanese documents in English. Although the Family Court is at the center of youth justice, it involves many social welfare elements. As with Japanese policing (Ellis et al., 2008; Aldous and Leishman, 2000; Leishman, 1999), what appears to be uniquely “oriental” autochthonous development of juvenile justice was actually a conscious importation in the Meiji, or “enlightenment” period (1868–1912), of what was seen as the most promising system from among the most advanced countries in that period (see Dale, 1988). If there is evidence of an offence, police (or guardians) should refer juvenile offenders under 14 to the director of their local child guidance center (essentially under a social welfare remit). It discusses the contested notion pre-delinquency and its net widening potential and its place in the wider trends in Japanese youth crime. World Risk Society. (2008). This article evaluates youth justice policies and practice in Europe from a comparative perspective. wing recognition that victims’ rights and voices are an integral part of criminal justice in Japan as well the United Kingdom and this project, and future publications will highlight the treatment of victims in different systems of justice. : 56–73 p. 22 ). ” Fukuoka, Seinangakuin University April 18–19, 2009 Japanese this... And the rise in crime in Japan: Reconsidering the Crisis discusses the contested notion and... Of comparative Law 29: 1–6.Find this resource: 本庄武『少年に対する刑事処分』（現代人文社，2014年） ( Honjo, T.,,... 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